Optimal treatment of a health condition or disease is dependent on comprehensive and accurate assessment of the health and its associated problems. Measurement of various subjective parameters of health are performed using patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). Many of these are developed in English, and its applicability in Nepal is limited because of language and cultural barriers. 

One of my research agenda is to translate, cross-culturally adapt and validate PROMs in Nepali in order to facilitate clinical management (of health-related problems especially pain and other non-communicable diseases) and research in Nepal. As a result, we have completed translation and cross-cultural adaptation of PROMs recommended for clinical trials in low back pain and chronic pain. 

This page is created with an intention to provide a comprehensive list of Nepalese PROMs to clinicians and researchers to use in clinical practice and research. 

Free to use measures without copyright can be downloaded and used without permission from the developers and translators. However, copyrighted measures should only be used after obtaining permission from the developer(s).

Please click on the measures to get direct access to the outcome measures or to the link to the developer’s website.

  • Numerical Rating Scales – to assess the intensity of pain.
  • Patient-Specific Functional Scale (PSFS) – to assess physical function or disability on individuals with musculoskeletal pain and other health conditions.
  • Pain Catastrophizing Scale – to assess level of catastrophizing (exaggeration in simple words) of pain. To use the Nepali version of PCS, contact Mapi Trust.
  • Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) – It is one of the commonest scales to assess resilience. It has 3 versions; full 25 item scale, 10 item scale and 2 item scale. Nepali versions of the 10 and 2 item CD-RISC scales are validated. It can be used for a variety of clinical conditions, although it is validated in individuals with chronic pain. To use it in research, contact the developer, Dr. Jonathan Davidson. Detailed information of the measure and contact information of the developer can be found in the website of CD-RISC.
  • Beck Depression Inventory – for assessment of Depression. Read full-text of the article on the validation of Nepali version of the BDI.
  • Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) – for the assessment of Anxiety. Read the full-text article of validation study of Nepali version of the BAI.
  • Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) – It is among the commonest measure to assess disability due to low back pain. You will find the translation and validation study of Nepali- ODI here. To use ODI in research, contact Mapi Trust.
  • Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) – It is a 14 item scale with 7 items each for anxiety and depression. It can be used in a variety of clinical conditions to assess symptoms related to anxiety and depression. Nepali version of the HADS with the full-text free access can be found in the journal website.
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