Optimal treatment of a health condition or disease is dependent on comprehensive and accurate assessment of the problem. Measurement of various subjective parameters of health are not possible in Nepal because of absence of valid measurement tools. In 2013, after the completion of my Master of Physiotherapy, and with the intention to help (treat/ manage) people living with chronic pain, I realized that there are no valid outcome measures to assess these parameters of health. Any physical suffering including pain either is caused because of biological, psychological and social problems or these sufferings create imbalance in these three component of life. As the accurate assessment of all the parameters are important, my research includes translation of important outcome measurement tools to Nepali and assessing if these measures are valid for individuals who speak Nepali.
There are various guidelines and recommendations for wide array of health conditions that recommend careful assessment of health related parameters. The measures that I have cherry picked for translation and validation for the use in Nepali are mostly based on these recommendations. These research projects were carried out by help and supervision from the developers of the outcome measures and leading experts in the field.
This page will give you a list of outcome measures that are translated to Nepali using standard recommended translation guidelines. Free to use measures without copyright can be downloaded and used without permission from the developers and translators. However, copyrighted measures should only be used after obtaining permission from the developer(s).
Please click on the measures to get direct access to the outcome measures or to the link to the developer’s website.
1. Numerical Rating Scales – to assess the intensity of pain.
2. Patient Specific Functional Scale (PSFS) – to assess physical function or physical disability on individuals with various health conditions.
3. Pain Catastrophizing Scale – to assess level of catastrophizing (exaggeration in simple words) of pain. To use the Nepali version of PCS, please contact Mapi Trust.
4. Beck Depression Inventory – for assessment of Depression. Read full text of the article on the validation of Nepali version of BDI.
5. Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) – for the assessment of Anxiety. Read the full text article of validation study of Nepali version of BAI.
6. Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) – It is among the commonest measure to assess disability due to low back pain. You will find the translation and validation study of Nepali- ODI here. To use ODI in research, please request Mapi Trust for the access.
7. Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) – It is one of the commonest scales to assess resilience. It has 3 versions; full 25 item scale, 10 item scale and 2 item scale. Nepali versions of 10 and 2 item CD-RISC are validated. It can be used for a variety of clinical conditions. To use it in research or clinical practice, please contact the developer. Detailed information of the measure and contact information of the developer can be found in the website of CD-RISC.
8. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) – It is a 14 item scale with 7 items each for anxiety and depression. It can be used in a variety of clinical conditions to assess symptoms related to anxiety and depression. Nepali version of HADS with the full text free access can be found in the journal website.
Other outcome measures which have successfully been translated to Nepali and are currently being validated in Nepali are:
1. Life orientation test (LOT)
2. Disability of Arm Shoulder and Hand (DASH)
3. Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI)
4. Pelvic Girdle Questionnaire (PGQ)
5. Pelvic organ prolapse questionnaire
6. Short forms of 5 PROMIS measures
– Pain intensity
– Pain interference
– Sleep disturbance
– Pain behaviour
7. Short form McGill Pain Questionnaire
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